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101 Heresies of Antipope Benedict XVI

Patrick J. Pollock + 2005

www.patrickpollock.com

"If anyone holds to one single one of these (heresies) he is not a Catholic."
-- Pope Leo XIII (from the Encyclical Satis Cognitum: 9)



What is Heresy?

"[H]eresy is a species of unbelief, belonging to those who profess the Christian faith, but corrupt its dogmas." (St. Thomas Aquinas, O.P. Angelic Doctor, Summa theologiae: II-II, q. 11, a. 1, Respondeo). 

What must we believe?

"By the divine and Catholic Faith, all those things must be believed which are contained in the written Word of God and in tradition, and those which are proposed by the Church, either in a solemn pronouncement or in her ordinary and universal magisterium, to be believed as divinely revealed." (Pope Pius IX, Dogmatic Constitution concerning the Catholic Faith Dei Filius, 24 April 1870, Ch. 3, with the submission of the Ecumenical Vatican Council I, Session III, D. 1792). 

Who is a heretic?

“Any baptized person who … obstinately denies or doubts any of the truths proposed for belief by divine and Catholic faith, is a heretic.” (Canon 1325.2, Codex Iuris Canonici, ed. Pietro Card. Gasparri, Vatican: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1917; cf. Decretales Gregorii IX., lib. v,. tit. vii. De Haereticis, Corpus iuris canonici, ed. E. Friedberg, vol. II. (Leipzig 1879 [repr. ed. Graz 1959] 1-928; Rex pacificus of 5 September 1234).

Can a heretic be a valid Pope of the Roman Catholic Church?

No. The Papal Bull Cum ex apostolatus officio of Pope Paul IV declared that: if anyone was a heretic before the Papal Election, he could not be a valid pope, even if he is elected unanimously by the Cardinals. Canon 188.4 (Codex 1917; cf. Leo XIII's Satis Cognitum, n. 15) stated that: if a cleric (pope, bishop, etc.) becomes a heretic, he loses his office without any declaration by operation of law. St. Robert Bellarmine, St. Antonius, St. Francis de Sales, St. Alphonsus Liguori, and many other theologians all teach that a heretic cannot be a pope: "If however, God were to permit a pope to become a notoriously and contumacious heretic he would by such fact cease to be pope, and the apostolic chair would be vacant." (St. Alphonsus Maria de Liguori, Doctor of the Church: Verità della Fede. Pt. iii, Ch.viii, 9-10).


101 Heresies of Antipope Benedict XVI

Codes for the Sources can be found at the end of this page.

 

Heresies of Antipope Benedict XVI

Truth of Divine and Catholic Faith

1.

Church is yet to be an united brotherhood.  TOC: 115

The Church is truly now an unified brotherhood.  Pius XI, MA: 7

2.

The dogma of unbaptized infants going to Hell is unenlightened. 
GAW: 401

Whosoever criticizes the dogma that infants dying without baptism are not saved, such a person is anathema
Martin V, T. I: 422.

3.

Muslims worship the One True God. 
LR: 8/24/05, p. 9

Modernists hold that Muslims truly worship the One True God. 
St. Pius X, D. 2082

4.

The Eastern schismatic sect has apostolic succession. 
CN: 17

Only Catholic bishops in union with the Pope possess true apostolic succession. 
Leo XIII, SC: 14-15

5.

Heretical sects exist as means of salvation. 
DI: 17

Only the Catholic Church exists as means of salvation. 
Leo XIII, SC: 9

6.

Multireligious prayer stirs the heart of God. 
TT: 107

Multireligious prayer is never approved by God. 
Pius XI, MA: 10

7.

Pius IX's Religious Liberty decisions need correction.
NMT: 106

No condemnation by the Roman Church can be revised without incurring anathema.
St. Simplicius I, D. 160

8.

Heretics are Christians. 
SOE: 242

No heretic is a Christian.
Pius IX, EM: 25

9.

Christological dogma has developed. 
JTE: 90

It is condemned as Modernism to say the dogma of Christ's Divinity was developed.
St. Pius X, D. 2094


 

Heresies of Antipope Benedict XVI

Truth of Divine and Catholic Faith

 

 10.

Faith is a mere sensory experience that transcends man. 
PCT: 345

The Modernists teach that faith is a mere sense felt without any intellectual assent. 
St. Pius X, PDG: 7

 

 11.

The Church ought to reconcile herself with liberalism & progress.
PCT: 381

It is heretical to say the Head of the Church ought to reconcile the Church with liberalism & progress.
Pius IX, D. 1780

 

 12.

The Church ought not exclude those who hold contrary views.
PCT: 229

The Church excludes all those who hold contrary views to Her teachings.
Eugene IV, D. 705

 

 13.

Unbelieving Jews are not accursed. 
MRC: 42

The perfidious Jews reject Jesus Christ's Divinity, thus they are anathema.
Vigilius I, D. 222

 

 14.

Catholics ought not try to dissolve Protestant sects.
PCT: 202

Catholics must try to dissolve Protestant sects.
St. Pius X, ED: 21-22

 

15.

The Church is joined to heretics and schismatics.
CTC: 17

Heretics are not joined to the Church.
Pius XII, D. 2286

 

 16.

A Catholic cannot uphold the Councils of Trent and Vatican I. 
RR: 28

All Catholics are bound to uphold the orthodoxy of the Councils of Trent and Vatican I. 
Pius IX, D. 1000

 

 17.

The Catholic Faith has developed over the ages.
GAW: 262

Nothing can added to or taken away from the Catholic Faith, all Christians must be content with tradition.
Benedict XV, ABA: 24-25

 

 18.

The Church ought to seek for unity of religions.
SOE: 238

The Church must condemn and disband all false religions.
Pius XI, MA: 2-8

 

 19.

The god Krishna is a symbol of Christ and reality.
PCT: 326

No composition is possible between Christ and Belial. 
St. Pius X, CR: 30

 


 

 

Heresies of Antipope Benedict XVI

Truth of Divine and Catholic Faith

 20.

There can be no return to Pius IX's Syllabus over Vatican II. 
PCT: 391

There can be no appeal to a Council over past infallible magisterial decisions.
Pius II, D. 717.

 21.

The Pope ought to promote ecumenism. 
GC: 5

The Apostolic See can never promote the motley of false-ecumenism. 
Pius XI, MA: 7-10

 22.

There is blame on part of the Church for the Waldensian schism.
PFF: 203

The Waldensians richly deserved anathema from the Holy See.
Gregory XVI, MV:19

 23.

Unbelieving Jews are not excluded from salvation.
GAW: 151

All perfidious Jews existing outside the Catholic Church cannot be saved without entering and obeying Her.
Eugene IV, D. 712-714

 24.

Heretical sects are united to the Church.
DI: 17

Sects are not united to the Church.
Pius XI, MA:10-11

 25.

Many people are saved outside the Catholic Faith.
SOE: 24

No one can be saved outside the true Catholic Faith.
Pius IV, D. 1000

 26.

The resurrection of the flesh is not of physical bodies.
ITC: 357

The resurrection of the flesh is of the same body one possessed in their earthly life.
Bl. Gregory X, D. 464

 27.

Vatican I’s definition of Papal Primacy is not binding on all Christians.
PCT: 198

All Christians must believe the definition of Pius IX on Papal Primacy.
Pius IX, D. 1826

 28.

One can be saved without being a visible member of the Church.
RR: 196

Only those who can be saved are those who are real members of the Church.
Pius XII, D. 2286


 

 

Heresies of Antipope Benedict XVI

Truth of Divine and Catholic Faith

 29.

Protestant sects ought to be strengthened.
PCT: 202

All heretical sects are to be exterminated.
Innocent III, T. I: 234-235

 30.

There is sanctification in sects.
DI: 16

There is no sanctification in sects.
Pius XII, D. 2286

 31.

Catholics ought to give communion to schismatics.
PFF: 232

A schismatic is in mortal sin and cannot lawfully be given communion.
Paul III, D. 893

 32.

There is no hope for real unity by converting heretics.
PCT: 197

The hope to promote Christian unity can only be promoted by converting heretics.
Pius XI, MA: 10

 33.

The Church is guilty of sins.
PFF: 275

Holy Mother Church is immaculate and impeccable.
Pius XII, MCC: 66

 34.

Catholics share with Protestants a hope for heaven. 
GAW: 130

It is heretical to say there is hope for the eternal salvation of Protestants who are no wise in the Church. 
Pius IX, D. 1717-1718

 35.

The Catholic Church ought not convert schismatic churches.
EVT: 68

The Catholic Church must convert schismatic groups into her bosom.
Pius XI, MA:12

 36.

Pius IX erred in his Syllabus.
PCT: 381

No pope can err when solemnly condemning errors on faith or morals.
Pius IX, D. 1798

 37.

Protestants who believe in the Eucharist share in the True Presence.
PCT: 236

Abjuration, confession, and absolution are needed before a heretic could communicate.
Paul III, D. 893

 38.

Unity of Christians needs to process to become reality.
GAW: 453

The unity of Christians is already a reality in the Catholic Church.
Pius XI, MA:7-10


 

 

Heresies of Antipope Benedict XVI

Truth of Divine and Catholic Faith

 39.

Theologians can develop Church doctrine.
EVT: 33

No divine doctrine can be developed.
Pius XII, D. 2314

 40.

There are essential and non-essential elements of Faith.
GAW: 453

All articles of faith are fundamental.
Pius XI, MA: 9

 41.

Rome must not require the Greek schismatics to abjure their errors on the Papal Primacy.
PCT: 199

Greeks must repudiate all errors and hold all dogmas taught from the Apostolic Chair of Peter.
St. Pius X, PTC: 743-746

 42.

The Idea of the 'the Body of Christ' was developed.
ECV: 18

The doctrine of the Mystical Body of Christ was taught by the Redeemer Himself.
Pius XII, MCC: 1

 43.

There is hope for infants who die without baptism. 
GAW: 402

There is no hope for the salvation of anyone outside the Catholic Church.
Pius IX, D. 1719

 44.

The doctrinal understanding of Papal Infallibility has developed.
DCF: 11

The doctrinal understanding of Papal Infallibility is that no new dogma may be developed.
Pius IX, D.1836

 45.

There are invisible members of the Church who are saved.
DI: 20

The Church is visible and so are Her elected members.
Pius XII, D. 2286

 46.

Eastern schismatics are united to Catholic Church.
CTC: 17

Eastern schismatics are not united to the Catholic Church.
Pius XI, MA: 10-11

 47.

The Church needs renewal and reform to become Church.
ECV:18

It is absurd to say the Church needs reform as if it is a human institution.
Gregory XVI, MV: 10

 48.

Many false religions fall within the plan of salvation.
DI: 14

Only the Catholic Religion falls within the plan of salvation.
Leo XII, UP: 14


 

 

Heresies of Antipope Benedict XVI

Truth of Divine and Catholic Faith

 49.

Non-Catholic religions possess truth.
DI: 2

Only the Catholic Religion possesses truth.
Gregory XVI, D. 1617

 50.

Non-Christians can be saved as such.
DI: 21

No non-Christians can be saved as such.
Eugene IV, T. I: 551

 51.

Christianity failed to make itself heard.
ITC: 11

Christianity cannot fail at anything.
Leo XIII, SC: 3

 52.

The Doctrine of Papal Primacy was developed.
GAW: 379

The Doctrine of Papal Primacy defined as such was already a constant belief of every age.
Leo XIII, SC: 15

 53.

All non-Christians are not destined for hell.
GAW: 68

All existing outside the Catholic Church are on the road to hell unless they enter the Church.
Eugene IV, D. 714

 54.

The term “Original Sin” is imprecise and mistakable.
ITB: 71

The term “Original Sin” is precisely understandable and true as the Church always understood.
Paul III, D. 791

 55.

Thank God for the loss of the Papal States.
GAW: 382

The Usurpation of the Papal States is a criminal act condemned by God.
Pius IX, RS: 12

 56.

The Tridentine texts on Holy Orders are merely polemics against Luther.
PCT: 249

The purpose of the Tridentine texts on Holy Orders is to teach the Rule of Faith to the faithful.
Paul III, D. 960

 57.

The Church is yet to be united.
PCT: 302

The Church has full unity.
Leo XIII, SC: 4-5

 58.

The Church is sinful.
ITC: 339

The Church can never be contaminated; She is incorrupt.
Pius XI, MA: 10


 

 

Heresies of Antipope Benedict XVI

Truth of Divine and Catholic Faith

 59.

Catholics ought to receive communion from schismatics.
PFF: 232

No Catholic may hold communion with schismatics in divine worship.
Pius VI, CH: 32

 60.

Heretical sects are true particular churches.
DI: 17

Only churches united to the Apostolic See are true churches.
Pius IX, PTC: 416

 61.

The Church is in constant renewal.
CTC: 133

It is absurd to say the Church needs renewal as if it is a mere human institution.
Gregory XVI, MV: 10

 62.

Doctrine of Predestination has developed.
GAW: 58

A divine doctrine can never develop for it is an immutable truth of God.
St. Pius X, D. 2145

 63.

The Liturgy ought to be in the vernacular.
GAW: 417

The introduction of popular language into the Mass is condemned.
Pius VI, D. 1566

 64.

The Bible is readily comprehensible to all.
GAW: 155

It is heretical to say the Scriptures are for all in every age and circumstance unto understanding.
Leo XII, D.1604-1606

 65.

The Pope has no absolute powers.
GAW: 453

The Pope has the supreme powers to rule and teach the universal Church.
Pius IX, D. 1827-1831

 66.

Neither Christ nor the Apostles ever defined a body of dogmas.
ITC: 96

It is heretical to teach Christ never defined a body of dogmas.
St. Pius X, D. 2059

 67.

God's Church is built up when schismatics receive the Eucharist. 
CN: 17

Schismatics that eat the Eucharist commit sacrilege. 
Gregory XVI, CD: 11


 

 

Heresies of Antipope Benedict XVI

Truth of Divine and Catholic Faith

 68.

The Eastern schismatics have communion with the Roman Catholic Church.
CN: 17

The Eastern schismatics have no communion with the Roman Catholic Church.
Leo XIII, SC:4-5, 13

 69.

The Latin Liturgy ought not to be the normal Roman Rite.
SOE: 177

The introduction of popular language into the Mass is condemned.
Pius VI, D. 1566

 70.

The Church has contributed to the crisis of tradition afflicting man.
PCT: 100

Modernists seek to falsify and weaken the force of Sacred Tradition.
St. Pius X, PDG: 42

 71.

The Creed offers no teaching of Jesus.
ITC: 203

The Creed is full of Jesus’ teachings.
St. Leo I, T. I: 86-87

 72.

Christ’s followers lack visible unity.
GC: 5

All Christ’s followers are united in His One True Church.
Pius XI, MA: 7-12

 73.

Heretics are in communion with the Church.
ECV: 17

No heretic is in communion with the Catholic Church.
Leo XIII, SC:4-5, 13

 74.

The Church always needs reform.
RR: 50

It is absurd to say the Church needs reform as if it is a human institution.
Gregory XVI, MV: 10

 75.

The necessity of infant baptism is questionable.
ITB: 401-402

Infants must be baptized immediately and without question.
Eugene IV, D. 712

 76.

The Church in the First Millennium did not hold the Supremacy of the Pope.
PCT: 199

The Church always held the Supremacy of Peter and His Successors.
Pius IX, D. 1824


 

 

Heresies of Antipope Benedict XVI

Truth of Divine and Catholic Faith

 77.

There are non-irreformable magisterial teachings.
EVT: 28

All magisterial teachings are infallible and irreformable.
Pius IX, D. 1839

 78.

The validity of the Liturgy depends not on form, but on community.
PCT: 377

The form operated by the minister is essential to confect the sacrament, not the community.
Pius XII. D. 2300

 79.

Tridentine doctrine of grace has developed.
SOE: 263

The doctrines on grace and justification defined at the Council of Trent have been always taught.
Paul III, D. 792a

 80.

The Church rejects nothing holy and true in false religions
PFF: 214

Outside the Church the Truth cannot be found. 
Gregory XVI, D.1617

 81.

The Bishops exercise supreme and full power over all the Church.
DCF: 4

Only the Roman Pontiff exercises supreme and full power over all the Church.
Leo XIII, SC: 14-15

 82.

Praying with false religions can bring peace.
TT: 106

Praying with false religions for peace is condemned! 
Pius XI, MA:1-17

 83.

Charismatic sects like Taize ought to be formed elsewhere as well.
PCT: 304

All heretical sects are to be exterminated.
Innocent III, T. I: 234-235

 84.

The Tradition of the Church is growing through human experience.
PCT: 88

The Modernists teach that Tradition develops through human experiences.
St. Pius X, PDG: 15, 28

 85.

The Church has sinned.
ITC: 341

The Church can never be contaminated; She is incorrupt.
Pius XI, MA: 10


 

 

Heresies of Antipope Benedict XVI

Truth of Divine and Catholic Faith

 86.

Non-Christians can practice the virtue of charity out of the Church.
CTC: 145

There is no charity for those in the state of grievous sin.
Pius XII, MCC: 23

 87.

The Greek Heterodox of the 1054 Schism are not anathema.

LB: 2-3

The Greek Heterodox of the 1054 Schism are still anathema by all the Orthodox Fathers of the Holy Church.
St. Leo IX, D. 352

 88.

The Church needs purification.
PFF: 277

The Church needs no purification for She is Most Pure.
Pius XI, DIM: 101

 89.

The Vatican II Council was right in vernacularizing the Liturgy.
MM: 148

The introduction of popular language into the Mass is condemned.
Pius VI, D. 1566

 90.

The practice of early infant baptism is questionable.
GAW: 402

Infants must be baptized immediately and without question.
Eugene IV, D. 712

 91.

The Church of Rome is not the Mother of all churches.
PFF: 238

The Holy Roman Church is the Mother of all churches.
Leo X, EXD: 2

 92.

The Immaculate Conception is a doctrinal development.
GAW: 304

The doctrine of the Immaculate Conception always existed in the Church and has never changed.
Pius IX, ID:16

 93.

Man evolved out of the earth.
GAW: 76

God produced all things (spiritual and material) existing in the world out of nothing (ex nihil).
Pius IX, D. 1805

 94.

The Church continually develops the doctrine on Papal Primacy.
PSP: 2

The Church can only guard the divine teaching of Papal Primacy.
Pius IX, D. 1836

 95.

The Vatican II Council was right in revising the Order of Mass.
MM: 148

It is heretical to say the rite of Mass can be changed lawfully.
Paul III, D. 856


 

 

Heresies of Antipope Benedict XVI

Truth of Divine and Catholic Faith

 96.

We need to essentialize what are essential elements of faith.
GAW: 453

All matters of faith are fundamentally revealed by God and cannot be non-essentialized.
Pius XI, MA: 9

97.

Sects are in communion with the Catholic Church.
CN: 17

No sect is in communion with the Catholic Church.
Leo XIII, SC:4-5, 13

98.

Pius X's Anti-Modernist decisions need correction.
NMT: 106

Anyone trying to destroy the force and efficacy of Pius X's Anti-Modernist Decrees is anathema.
St. Pius X, D. 2114

99.

A Jew or anyone does not need to believe in Christ as the Son of God to be saved.
Z: 2

Whoever wishes to be saved must hold the Catholic Faith, which includes the Trinity and the Incarnation.
Eugene IV, T. I: 551-3

100.

Bread and wine does not physically change to be Christ.
GAW: 408

Bread and wine does physically change to be Christ, which is termed Transubstantiation.
Paul III. D. 884

101.

There are magisterial decisions, which are not the final word.
NMT: 106

Rome has spoken the cause is finished.
Pius XI, AS: 17


"And since truth cannot contradict truth, we define that every statement contrary to the enlightened truth of the faith is totally false and we strictly forbid teaching otherwise to be permitted. We decree that all those who cling to erroneous statements of this kind, thus sowing heresies which are wholly condemned, should be avoided in every way and punished as detestable and odious heretics and infidels who are undermining the catholic faith." (Pope Leo X, Bull Apostolici Regiminis, 19 December 1513, with the submission of the Fifth Lateran General Council, Session VIII, T. 605-606).
 

Table of Sources - Abbreviations

Abb. Source: Name, Author, Publisher, Date, etc.
ABA Benedict XV, Pope. Ad Beatissimi Apostolorum, 1 November 1914.
AS
Pius XI, Pope. Ad Salutem, 30 April, 1930.
CD
Gregory XVI, Pope. Commissum Divinitus, 17 May 1835.
CH
Pius VI, Pope. Charitas, 13 April 1791.
CN
Ratzinger, Joseph (Benedict XVI). Letter To The Bishops Of The Catholic Church On Some Aspects Of The Church Understood As Communion, 28 May 1992.
CR
Pius X, Pope St., Communium Rerum, 21 April 1909.
CTC
Ratzinger. Called to Communion: Understanding the Church Today (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1996).
D.
Denzinger, Rev. Henry (ed.), Enchiridion symbolorum, definitionum et declarationum de rebus fidei et morum, (Barcelona: Editorial Herder, 27th ed., 1951).
DCF
Ratzinger. Doctrinal Commentary on the Concluding Formula of the Professio Fidei, L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 15 July 1998, pp. 3-4.
DI
Ratzinger. Declaration Dominus Iesus on the Unicity and Salvific Universality of Jesus Christ and the Church, 6 August 2000.
DIM
Pius XI, Pope. Divini illius magistri, 31 December 1929.
ECV
Ratzinger. The Ecclesiology of Vatican II, 15 September 2001, L'Osservatore Romano, English edition,  23 January 2002, p. 5.
EM
Pius IX, Pope Ven., Etsi Multa, 21 November 1873.
ES
Pius X, Editae Saepe, 26 May 1910.
EVT
Ratzinger. Instruction on the Ecclesial Vocation of the Theologian, 24 May 1990.
EXD
Leo X, Pope. Exsurge Domine, 15 June 1520.
GAW
Ratzinger. God and the World: Believing and Living in Our Time: A Conversation with Peter Seewald (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2002).
GC
Ratzinger. Sermo Gratia Copiosa, 5 April 2005.
ID
Pius IX. Ineffabilis Deus, 8 December 1854.
ITB
Ratzinger. In the Beginning: A Catholic Understanding of the Story of Creation and the Fall, (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Erdmans Publishing Co., 1995).
ITC
Ratzinger. Introduction To Christianity (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2004).
JTE
Ratzinger. Journey Towards Easter (New York: The Crossroad Publishing Company, 1987).
LB
Ratzinger. Letter to Bartholomew I, 26 November 2005.
LR
L'Osservatore Romano
MA
Pius XI, Pope. Mortalium Animos, 6 January 1928.
MCC
Pius XII, Pope. Mystici Corporis Christi, 29 June 1943.
MRC
Ratzinger. Many Religions - One Covenant: Israel, the Church, and the World (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2000).
MM
Ratzinger. Milestones: Memoirs 1927-1977 (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1998).
MV
Gregory XVI, Pope. Mirari Vos, 15 August 1832.
NMT
Ratzinger. The Nature and Mission of Theology: Its Role in the Light of Present Controversy (San Francisco, Ignatius Press, 1995).
PCT
Ratzinger. Principles of Catholic Theology (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1987).
PDG
Pius X, Pope St. Pascendi Dominici Gregis, 8 September 1907.
PFF
Ratzinger. Pilgrim Fellowship of Faith (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2005).
PSP
Ratzinger. The Primacy of the Successor of Peter in the Mystery of the Church, L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 18 November, 1998, pp. 5-6.
PTC
Papal Teachings: The Church, ed. by the Benedictine Monks of Solesmes (Boston: St. Paul Editions, 1962).
RR
Ratzinger and Messori, Vittorio. The Ratzinger Report (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1985).
RS
Pius IX, Respicientes, 1 November 1870.
SC
Leo XIII, Pope. Satis Cognitum, 29 June 1896.
SOE
Ratzinger and Seewald, Peter. Salt of the Earth (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1997).
T.
Tanner, Norman P. (ed.), Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils, (London: Sheed & Ward, 1990), Volume 1.
TOC
Ratzinger. The Open Circle: The Meaning of Christian Brotherhood (New York: Sheed and Ward, 1966).
TT
Ratzinger. Truth and Tolerance (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2004).
UP
Leo XII, Pope. Ubi Primum, 5 May 1824.
Z
Zenit News Agency, "Are Believers of Other Religions Saved?", Published 5 September, 2000. <http://www.zenit.org/english/archive/0009/ZE000905.html#item3>

101 HERESIES OF ANTIPOPE BENEDICT XVI